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Home » Diseases starting with Letter T » Typhoid Fever

Typhoid Fever:

A highly infectious disease most often contracted in Asia or the Mediterranean countries. Like PARATYPHOID it is an enteric fever—that is it affects the intestines. Typhoid is caused by bacteria that live in human faeces. The infection is spread by food, particularly shellfish, and water, contaminated by flies. About } per cent of patients become carriers after they have recovered from the disease. They probably harbour the infection in the gallbladder and continue to excrete the bacteria in their faeces. They do not have any symptoms and so do not know that they are still infectious. The only way of detecting a carrier is by identifying the organism in the faeces. Carriers can start an epidemic, particularly if they are food handlers, without knowing that they are responsible. The possibility of infection is usually raised because the patient has been in contact with the disease or in a community with poor sanitation.

Symptoms

  • Prolonged fever. Often the first indication of serious disease is when the fever is rising on the fifth day and after.
  • Headache.
  • Mental confusion.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • A rash of rose-coloured spots beginning in the second week of the disease.
  • Constipation, which may be followed by diarrhoea.

Incubation period

  • Ten to 14 days.

Duration

  • One to eight weeks, depending upon the severity of the infection and treatment.
  • There may be a relapse (recurrence of symptoms) about two weeks after apparent recovery.

Causes

  • A bacillus called Salmonella typhi.

Treatment in the home

  • None. Consult the doctor if you suspect typhoid. particularly after returning from abroad.

What the doctor may do

  • Send the patient to hospital.
  • Test specimens of blood, urine and faeces to confirm the diagnosis.
  • If typhoid is confirmed, prescribe antibiotics.
  • Isolate the patient.
  • Good nursing care and replacement of lost Fluids by frequent drinks are the main treatment.

Prevention

  • Immunisation against typhoid, which gives some protection for about three years, is not compulsory, but is recommended for travellers going outside North America or northern Europe. Any travellers would be wise to ask for tetanus immunisation to be included.

Typus

A serious, acute infectious disease caused by a rickettsia—a minute organism between a bacterium and a virus. There are various types of typhus, most of which arc transmitted by lice in conditions of poverty, overcrowding and close contact. Fleas, ticks and mites (scabies) may also spread some forms of the disease: symptoms, which occur after an incubation period of seven to ten days, are headache, fever and weakness, followed by a rash that appears first at the armpits. Treatment by antibiotics such as tetracycline or chloramphenicol is extremely effective.

Prevention is by the control of lice with DOT or other insecticides. There is also an effective vaccine available for those at high risk. Although still serious, typhus is no longer the dreaded disease it once was. At the end of the First World War it spread through eastern Europe attacking 50 million people. 3 million of whom died.

Ulcer

An inflamed break in the skin or in the mucous membrane lining the alimentary tract. There are many different kinds of ulcer, ranging from the small ulcers that appear inside the mouth, to the more serious gastric, duodenal and malignant ulcers.

Unconsciousness

Temporary loss of consciousness may last only a few seconds or several minutes and has many causes. Deep unconsciousness is Coma.

Undulant Fever

A disease of cattle, pigs and goats, also known as brucellosis. It is sometimes caught by people such as farmers or vets who are in contact with infected animals.

List of Diseases Starting Letter T

The List of Diseases Starting Letter T

Tampon, Retained Tattoo Tear-Duct, Blocked Tendon, Rupture Of
Tennis Elbow Teeth Care Tenosynovitis Tension Headache
Testicle, Torsion Of Testicle, Undescended Tetanus Thalassaemia Major
Thread Worms Throat, Lump In Thrombophlebitis Thrush
Thyrotoxicosis Tinnitus Tongue Problems Tonsillitis
Torn Ligament Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxocariasis Transient Ischaemic Attack
Travel and Hoilidays Trigeminal Neuralgia Tuberculosis Tumours of the Male Genital System
Typhoid Fever

 

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